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Full text of "Handbook Of Chemical Engineering - I"

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62
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
TYPICAL ANALYSES OF PEODUCER GASES FEOM VARIOUS FUELS (Values in percentage by volume)
Constituents	Up-draft pressure-producer gas				Down-draft producer gas		
	Anthracite	Bituminous coal	Lig-nite	Peat	Bituminous coal	Lignite	Peat
Garbon dioxide         CO 2	5.2 0.4 0..0 22.9 15.3 1.0 55.2	9.84 0.04 0.18 18.28 12.90 3.12 55.64	10.55 0.16 0.17 18.72 13.74 3.44 53.22	12.40 0.00 0.40 21.00 18.50 2.20 45.50	6.22 0.13 0.01 21.05 12.01 0.49 60.09	11.87 0.01 0.00 16.01 14.76 0.98 56.37	10.94 0.41 0.06 16.91 10.19 0.66 60.83
Oxygen..              .    O2							
Ethylene ....... C2H4							
Carbon monoxide. . .CO Hydrogen ......... H2							
Methane.             . . . CEU							
Nitrogen ........ N2							
							
	100.00	100.00	100.00	100.00	100.00	100.00	100.00
(From MARKS' Mechanical Engineers' Handbook)
By-product Plants.—In ordinary producer operation, ammonia formed from the nitrogen in the coal is wasted at the scrubber outlet. In the Mond process, it is recovered as ammonium sulphate. Tar is also reclaimed and the gas goes to the engine very clean and of uniform quality. A deep, low-temperature fuel bed is used.
Construction and Operation.—Shells are of calked steel sheets, made up into vertical cylinders, lined and with water-cooled tops. The base may be tight,
Fuel	Type of engine	Compression, Ib. per sq. in.		Heat value average B.t.u. per pound (low value)
		Usual Range	Gage Average	
Natural gas	Medium and large size Large engines (Europe) Small sizes Small sizes All sizes Largest sizes	75-160 105-135 75-120 75-105 100-160 120-190	120 120 100 90 130 155	21,300 14,400 17,000 7,200 1,950 1,500
Coke-oven gas				
Coal gas .......				
Carbureted water gas ..... Producer gas				
Blast-furnace gas . .				
				
or water-sealed. Peep-holes and cleaning doors are provided. Mechanical stirring and mechanically moved grates are available. Cleaning requires removal of dust down to about 0.01 gr. per cubic foot of gas and elimination of moisture. Dust removal is effected by dry cleaners which change the direction and reduce the velocity of gas flow, by niters, by tower washers (scrubbers) and by centrifugal washers. In soft-coal plants, special tar-extracting devices must be added. The first cost of entire gas making plant will be about three times